Scientific Name :- Cirrhinus Mrugal
Common Name :- Mrugal, Naini, Naren etc.
Geographical habitation and prevalence:-
The name Cyprinus Mrugal was given to this fish by scientists for the first time, thereafter it has been renamed as Cirrhinus Mrugal. It is third significant fish of Indian major Carp which is rearing in freshwater. This fish is known as Mori in Punjab, as Naini in Uttar Pradesh and Bihar, as Mrugal in Bengal and Assam, as Mirikali in Odisha and Merimeen in Andhra Pradesh. In Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh it is known as Naren.
Mrugal is mainly found in the rivers of Ganges riverine system, rivers of Bengal, Punjab, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Uttar Pradesh and Andhra Pradesh, but now it is found in all over the India because it is reared in all the rivers, ponds and reservoirs of India.
Identification Characteristics :-
Longer body in comparison with other Indian carps, small mouth, round shaped mouth, fringeless lips thin at the end, shiny silver color with some redness, a couple of rostral bervel (mustache), a diamond shaped dark stain on the tail of small fry, pectoral, ventral and anal fins are of orange color with black shadow and golden eyes.
Eating habits :-
It is deep level habitant fish. The animal and plant garbage, algae and the mud available at the bottom of a pond is its main food. In 1945 scientists Mukherjee and Ghosh had studied on feeding habits of these fishes and found that it is a mixed autophagy fish. There is no major difference in eating habits between Mrugal and its small fry. A decline in eating of these fishes has been observed from June to the month of October.
Maximum size :-
Maximum Length 99 Cm and Weight 12.7 Kg. Normally it becomes 500 to 800 Gram of weight in a year.
Maturity and Reproduction :-
Mrugal attain sexual maturity in a year. It's breeding period is from July to August. The male longer stays mature than Female. It breeds in riverine environment in rainy season. It is possible to quick breeding through the actuate breeding method.
Eggs Fertility :-
According to scientists Jhingran and Alikunhi this fish lays 1.25 Lac to 1.5 Lac eggs in the ratio of per Kg weight, while according to Chakravarti Singh a fish of 2.5 Kg weight lays 4.63 Lac eggs. According to general calculations 1.0 Lac eggs have been estimated in the ratio of per Kg weight. Eggs of Mrigal are of 1.5 mm diameter and after fertilization it becomes 4.00 mm of diameter in water. Its eggs are of grey in color and transparent and hatching period is of 16 to 22 hours.
Economic Importance :-
Mrugal fish having certain competition in eating habits with outlandish major carp - Common carp but due to the quality of living together keeps its place in intensive rearing. It is reared in almost all the ponds and reservoirs of all the districts. In the period of one year of rearing it gains approximately 500 to 800 gram weight. Like other major carp fishes it is also sold on better rates in markets. Due to low food conversion efficiency and rates of Mrugal in comparison with Rohu fish, only 20 to 25 percent Catla species and 75 to 80 percent of Rohu is being used in intensive rearing in Andhra Pradesh instead of Mrugal.